Prof. G. Steinberg
For a map of the spread of Indo-European languages, click here.
Click here for a map of Europe.
Here is how to count in a dozen languages, using standard Roman alphabet transcriptions (not phonetic transcriptions). Six of these languages are Indo-European and six are not. Which are which?
|Proto-Indo-European Sound||Germanic||Latin||Later English Borrowing|
|p||f (father)||p (pater)||paternal|
|t||q (three)||t (tres)||trio|
|k||h (hound)||k (canis)||canine|
|b||p (lip)||b (labium)||labial|
|d||t (two)||d (duo)||dual|
|g||k (acre)||g (ager)||agriculture|
|bh||b (brother)||f (frater)||fraternal|
|dh||d (mead)||f, l, or w (mel)||mellifluous|
|gh||g (wagon)||h (veho)||vehicle|
Fill in the missing English words below.
|Proto-Indo-European Sound||Latin||Later English Borrowing||Original English Word|
|k||centum (c = k)||century||
For a map of the homeland of the Anglo-Saxons on the Continent and a map of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England at the time of the Danelaw, click here.
For a web-based PowerPoint presentation on the cultural contexts of Old English, click here.
For an example of an Old English manuscript page, click here.
For the text of Beowulf, click here.
Translate the following passage from Old English into Modern English, paying special attention to the inflections on the nouns and articles.
To þæs æðelinges hame wæron fela wera gegaderod. Þa eorlas hæfdon þa mecas and þa helmas þara Dena, þa þe hie on þæm campe ofercomon. Sum geong eorl hæfde þone hafoc. Þa ierðlingas on hærfeste of þam æcerum wæstmas alæddon, and þa fisceras on batum fiscas gefengon.
|To look up vocabulary, click here.||
To look up inflections, click here.
Click here for a web-based PowerPoint presentation on Middle English.
Click here to see a map of the territories ruled by King Henry II of England.
This Emperour Prestre Iohn holt full gret lond and hath many full noble cytees and gode townes in his royalme and many grete dyuerse yles and large. For all the contree of Ynde is deuysed in yles for the grete flodes þat comen from Paradys þat departen all the lond in many parties, and also in the see he hath full manye yles. And the beste cytee in the yle of Pentexoire is Nyse þat is full ryall cytee and a noble and full riche. This Prestre Iohn hath vnder him many kynges and many yles and the lond of the grete Chane. For the marchauntes comen not thider so comounly for to bye marchandises as þei don in the lond of the gret Chane, for it is to fer to trauaylle to.
Click here for a web-based PowerPoint presentation on the Great Vowel Shift.
Click here for a web-based PowerPoint presentation on the Renaissance and Modern English.
Examine the following list of words from Modern English. Given what you know about the Great Vowel Shift, how was each word probably pronounced in Middle English? Transcribe each word into the International Phonetic Alphabet first as it is pronounced in Modern English and then as you think it was probably pronounced in Middle English. NOTE: The spelling “ow” was another way of writing “ou.” So, treat the combination “ow” as if it were “ou.” (A “w” is called “double u” because originally it was “uu” -- so that “ow” = “ouu.”)
Click here to go to the course syllabus.