History of the English Language
Prof. G. Steinberg
Morphology Exercises
Selected Answers

Divide the following words into their morphemes. Indicate which morphemes are inflectional and which are derivational.

Below are some sentences in Swahili.

/mtoto amefika/ "The child has arrived."
/mtoto anafika/ "The child is arriving."
/mtoto atafika/ "The child will arrive."
/watoto wamefika/ "The children have arrived."
/watoto wanafika/ "The children are arriving."
/watoto watafika/ "The children will arrive."
/mtu amelala/ "The man has slept."
/mtu analala/ "The man is sleeping."
/mtu atalala/ "The man will sleep."
/watu wamelala/ "The men have slept."
/watu wanalala/ "The men are sleeping."
/watu watalala/ "The men will sleep."
/kisu kimeanguka/ "The knife has fallen."
/kisu kinaanguka/ "The knife is falling."
/kisu kitaanguka/ "The knife will fall."
/visu vimeanguka/ "The knives have fallen."
/visu vinaanguka/ "The knives are falling."
/visu vitaanguka/ "The knives will fall."
/kikapu kimeanguka/ "The basket has fallen."
/kikapu kinaanguka/ "The basket is falling."
/kikapu kitaanguka/ "The basket will fall."
/vikapu vimeanguka/ "The baskets have fallen."
/vikapu vinaanguka/ "The baskets are falling."
/vikapu vitaanguka/ "The baskets will fall."

How would you say the following sentences in Swahili? NOTE: The prefixes that indicate singular and plural on nouns and verbs are determined by the noun's "class." The word -toto, meaning "child(ren)," is a Class I noun. The word -kapu, meaning "basket(s)," is a Class II noun. When a verb is put with a Class I noun, it takes a Class I prefix to match the noun (and similarly a Class II prefix with a Class II noun). The noun always determines what prefix the verb takes.

    1. The child is falling. = mtoto anaanguka

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